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Aim and Scope

Over the past many decades, the societies of the world are under rapid and continual change due to scientific, technological and communication advancements. Every field of knowledge has become a specific field. Education has become a specialized field separating itself from the other subject of social sciences. The industrial modernity, globalization, fast ways of information communication brought the major shifts in policies....Read More

Current Issue



8, Issue 2, 2021

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  • Abstract

    The main purpose of the study was to identify the level of awareness of women protection laws at the workplace among university teachers in Lahore (Pakistan). A descriptive survey research design was employed in this study. The population is comprised of university teachers of public and private sectors in Lahore— a provincial capital of Pakistan. Using stratified random sampling technique, public universities were considered as one stratum and private universities were taken as other. Randomly, 400 male and female teachers were selected, 200 from public universities and 200 from private universities. The researchers developed a close-ended questionnaire for this research and the same was got validated by experts in the field of assessment and research. The reliability of the pilot study calculated through Cronbach Alpha was 0.84. Data were collected ensuring all ethical considerations. The major finding was that university teachers were significantly aware of women protection laws at the workplace, while female teachers considerably more aware than their male counterparts. Inferential statistics resulted in significant differences on demographic variables. Results of the study might be helpful for future policy decisions on the awareness about these laws.

    Keywords: women protection laws, awareness, workplace, harassment, university teachers.

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    Authors

    Nauman A. Abdullah , Muhammad Asif Malik & Komal Batool

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Role of Assistive Technology in the Rehabilitation of Children with Hearing Impairment

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  • Abstract

    Assistive technology plays a vital role in the lives of disable children. Main objective of this paper is to identify the role of assistive technology in the rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment. A self-developed questionnaire was used as a research tool and for the purpose of data collection. Due to the COVID-19 situation the data were collected with the help of google form and through social media platform. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data. It is observed that cochlear implant, FM system, ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) software, loop induction system, captioning, Telecommunication devices (TDD), TV streamer, remote microphones, notification systems devices, infrared systems and amplified telephones were the frequent assistive technologies used by the children with hearing impairment which are equally helpful for children in acquiring education as well as in daily life activities. It is recommended that the better and more positive results, professional need to be aware with the new technologies and get trained with the positive attitude towards the rehabilitations of children with hearing impairment.

    Keywords: Assistive Technology, Hearings-impaired, Rehabilitation

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    Authors

    Muhammad Javed Aftab , Muhammad Ashfaq , Robina Naqvi & Kiran Shehzadi

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  • Abstract

    The language is the utmost necessity for the survival of the races. In broader view, language may not be confined to any territory or nation. The main objectives were to explore the opinions of university faculty members in selection of medium of instructions during lectures, indicators responsible for as key motivators and to investigate the academic confidence among university students when they learn through specific medium of instructions. The perceptions from the universities’ faculty members were collected as the use of national and foreign language is most applicable in teaching learning environment. The simple random sampling technique was used for selection of one hundred university teachers from University of Education and GC University Faisalabad. The Self-developed tool, about mediums of instructions and Faculty Preference Survey (MIFPS) was used. The findings of the study showed that faculty members are more willing to use foreign language during their class lectures. They said foreign language is necessary to explain international terminologies while delivering the lectures. Male students were more optimistic to use foreign language as medium of instruction than that of female students. The learners showed positive attitude when national language is used. The male students’ confidence level was high when teachers use national language as medium of instruction as compared to foreign language. Students revealed to be much creative in using national language for learning purpose. It is suggested that both languages should be used at higher educational level to compete internally and the rest of the world.

    Keywords: National language, medium of instructions, confidence building, academia

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    Authors

    Farah Shafiq , Asif Iqbal & Zahida Javed

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  • Abstract

    One of the major problems in teaching economics is students’ failure to get mastery of economics concepts. To develop conceptual understanding among students dynamic methods of teaching are needed.  Study aimed to provide a method of teaching economics other than traditional method.  Effect of concept attainment model of teaching on college students’ academic achievement level was investigated. The experiment (ABA single subject design) was conducted in a public college of Punjab province. To conduct the experiment lesson plans covering the content from Grade XI economics book were developed and achievement tests were constructed. In baseline, instruction continued through routine instructional method, while in intervention phase, concept attainment strategy was used to teach economics concepts. In withdrawal phase, baseline conditions were reestablished. Results of repeated measures one way analysis of variance revealed that concept attainment teaching strategy is more effective than traditional method to teach economics. It was recommended that new teaching techniques should be included in the curriculum of economics to make the concept attainment easy and interesting.  

    Keywords: Effectiveness, Economics, Concept Attainment, Concept Attainment model

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    Authors

    Zahida Noreen & Abid Hussain Chaudhary

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Multiple Facets of Parental Involvement and the Homework Performance of Primary Level Students

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  • Abstract

    This study examined the influence of multiple facets of parental involvement on the homework performance of primary school students. The research was quantitative in nature. We used survey method to investigate the influence of different facets of parental involvement on the homework performance of their children with the help of self-constructed questionnaire. We collected data from primary level students (n= 120) and their teachers (n=20) from 10 primary school. Self-constructed Parental Involvement Questionnaire (PIQ, 17 items) was used to collect data from students and Homework Performance Questionnaire (HPQ, items 13) was used to collect data from teachers. Parental involvement was determined with respect to three facets i.e., 1) administrative, 2) emotional and 3) cognitive. Inferential statistics were applied to analyze data. Independent sample t-test was conducted to assess the high and low parental involvement on the homework performance of students which was found significant (p <.05) for the administrative involvement (p=.049) and cognitive involvement (p=.005). The findings indicate the role of parents intellectual and organizational input on the homework performance of their children at primary level.

    Keywords: administrative involvement, emotional involvement, cognitive involvement, homework performance

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    Authors

    Tooba Saleem & Farkhanda Zaffar

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  • Abstract

    The COVID-19 pandemic started as a health crisis but transformed into a humanitarian crisis within a few weeks. It affected all spheres of life including education and research. COVID-19 driven lockdowns, stay-at-home restriction, social and physical distancing, closure of educational and research facilities posed great challenges for academics students and researchers. This research had been designed to study the effect of COVID-19 pandemic-driven lockdown on research scholars’ efficiency and their mental health. To achieve the objectives of the study data was collected from researchers through Google form. Pearson's chi-square (χ2) test was used to test the hypothesis and the binary splitting technique is applied to make things simple. This study provided sufficient evidence to conclude that researchers faced a range of difficulties during the COVID-19 due to the lockdown. This unexpected situation led to the low efficiency of researchers and it ultimately negatively affected the mental health of both male and female researchers. The application of technology helped researchers to cope with COVID-19 driven challenges up to some extent.

    Keywords: COVID-19, pandemics, researcher, efficiency, mental health, technology

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    Authors

    Amjad Ali Arain , Abdul Malik Abbasi & Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    University Students’ Critical Thinking Skills with Reference to their Age and Gender

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  • Abstract

    The aim of this quantitative study was to survey the critical thinking skills of university students studying at different public universities in Lahore based on their gender and age. The sample was chosen using a multi-stage sampling technique. Data gathered from 475 students enrolled in various semesters at five public universities. Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) was used to assess students’ critical thinking abilities. T-test was employed to evaluate data in order to answer the study questions.  The results of study are evident that variable of age had a small effect on students’ critical thinking skills whereas these skills did not differ regarding their gender. The study is beneficial to further explore the reasons for differences with progression in the age. The policymakers and experts can plan to inculcate curriculum at the lower level of education for the enhancement of critical thinking. The study might also help them to make relevant and desirable changes in curriculum and pedagogy.

    Keywords: University Students, Critical Thinking, Critical Thinking Skills, Age, Gender

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    Authors

    Soofia Noor , Huma Lodhi & Farah Shafiq

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  • Abstract

    Present study was conducted to find out the effect of analysis activities on English reading comprehension and ability to read English text critically. Pre-test post-test control group design was selected. Sixty students as sample of the study were selected from a public sector college randomly. These sixty students were further divided into two equal groups and were taught continuously for16 weeks. English reading comprehension was measured through an English reading comprehension MCQs test, and students’ ability to read English text critically with a supply type test. Paired samples and Independent samples t-tests were used to analyze the data. The study results revealed that analysis activities were effective for teaching English reading comprehension and enabling students to read English text critically. English teachers should practice analysis activities for teaching English reading comprehension and enabling students to read English text critically. Students of grade XI should experience these activities to improve their English reading comprehension and ability to read English text critically. English teachers should exposed students to experience analysis activities to improve their English reading comprehension and ability to read English text critically.

    Keywords: Analysis Activities, Reading Comprehension, English Language, Reading Text Critically.

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    Authors

    Abdul Rauf & Muhammad Saeed

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Relationship between Thinking Styles and Academic Achievement

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  • Abstract

    Students differ in the ways that they think about problems and how they learn. Thinking style is the term used to describe the individual differences among students in how they think and learn. This study was designed to determine the relationship between thinking styles and academic achievement of secondary school students. The population in this study consisted of science students at grade 9 from male and female secondary schools of Tehsil Rawalpindi. Random sampling technique was used to select the sample. In the present study, two research instruments were used. The Convergent and Divergent Test was used to identify the thinking styles of the secondary school students and the Achievement Tests of Chemistry were used to identify the academic achievement of the students. The collected data was analyzed to calculate means, T-statistics, and Pearson product-moment correlations. Male students were mostly convergent thinkers and female students were mostly divergent thinkers. The relationship between thinking styles and academic achievement of secondary school students was positive and significant.

    Keywords: Thinking styles, academic achievement, convergent thinking, divergent thinking.

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    Authors

    Asma Mumtaz , Rahmat Ullah Bhatti & William Bart

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Development and Validation of Head Teachers’ Effectiveness Questionnaire

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  • Abstract

    The study focused on developing and validating a Head Teachers’ Effectiveness Questionnaire (HTEQ) based on quality indicators. Head teachers’ effectiveness is defined as the expected level of performance of head teacher on standards and it is considered a process of measuring effective qualities or performance standards required by the educational authorities demonstrated by the head teachers in schools. The researchers surveyed 1026 Secondary School Teachers in district Sahiwal by using a multistage sampling technique who perceived the level of effectiveness of their head teachers on the items of HTEQ. The overall reliability of the HTEQ was found to be high (α=0.88) while reliabilities of the five actors ranged between 0.77 to 0.85. The correlations among factors were found significantly moderate ranged from .35 to .59. Further, exploratory factor analysis discovered high internal validity of HTEQ with five factors. Confirmatory factor analysis also revealed that HTEQ provided a good fit model with significant value of χ2, and values of RMSEA, CFI, and GFI also presented a good fit model. The findings of the model evidenced that the HTEQ is a valid, reliable, and useful questionnaire for measuring head teacher effectiveness. In the end, recommendations have also been suggested in the present study. 

    Key word: Head teacher effectiveness; instructional leadership; teacher evaluation; school climate; communication and community relations

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    Authors

    Muhammad Akram & Muhammad Irfan Malik

  • Volume : 8 Issue : Issue 2 Year: 2021 Publish Date: 2021-12-31

    Time Management: Concept, Technique and Impact upon Performance

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  • Abstract

    This paper describes about the concept of time management, the effective techniques of time management and the impact of time management upon performance. It explores several techniques of time management practiced in different situations and different organizations through different samples of population. Effective time management brings focus upon the work and contributes towards productivity. By methodology, it was an extensive literature-review study. Through content analysis of vast literature search, it has been concluded that the term “time management’’ is actually. Time is not an accessible factor. It is about ‘self-management’. Effective time management increases the performances of individuals and organizations. It has been found the Meta analysis of multiple descriptive and empirical studies explaining the effects of time management have been found positive on outcomes, performance and job-satisfaction. The key to successful time management is planning and, then, protecting the planned time. Time management is not only referred to business or modern science. It has its importance in religion, too. The Quran and Hadith strongly declare war against purposeless life. Time management in Islamic perspective concentrates upon maximizing the productivity. Time Management has special strengths in identifying the most productive time spans. It gives practical mechanism for utilizing each moment of life in the most efficient, the most beneficial and the most productive manner. Effective time management brings focus upon the work and contributes towards productivity.  

    Keywords: Time management, time wasters, time savers, self- management, planning, procrastination, conditioning.

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    Authors

    Saleem Ullah Jundran & Javeria Saleem

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  • Abstract

    Television has been extensively used in educational crusades throughout the world. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of specific campaigns targeted at the Pakistani audience and their effect on parents' motivation and intention to enroll their children in school. Five prominent national cable television channels were chosen, and data on ongoing and previous educational campaigns on these channels were gathered, as well as a questionnaire for conducting a survey of parents. A total of 300 respondents have been chosen for the survey. According to the findings, the majority of parents agree that education is critical for their children's future. Additionally, television-based campaigns provide parents with motivation to invest in their children's education. The majority of parents believe they were influenced more by journalists, government officials, and showbiz celebrities than by the dissemination of material facts and figures, dramatic acts, educational lectures, and other global techniques used in these educational campaigns. Among Chosen channels viewers believe that Duniya News should broadcast more educational content. The majority of respondents preferred ascribed roles to the achieved roles depicted in television campaigns.

    Keywords: Educational Crusades, Parents’ commitments for children education, Motivation through media

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    Authors

    Abdul Rehman Qaisar , Hassan Raza Hashmi & Syed Mubashar Hussain Shah