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Aim and Scope

Over the past many decades, the societies of the world are under rapid and continual change due to scientific, technological and communication advancements. Every field of knowledge has become a specific field. Education has become a specialized field separating itself from the other subject of social sciences. The industrial modernity, globalization, fast ways of information communication brought the major shifts in policies....Read More

Current Issue



9, Issue 1, 2022

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  • Abstract

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience limitations in motor skills learning and performance. Impact of limitations can be minimized through involvement in Physical Activities (PA) and development of Physical Literacy (PL). The purpose of this study is to search available literature published in last ten years purely based on physical activity interventions to determine current preferences and provide direction for future preferences in designing interventions for children with DCD. Search was made by using three key terms on four databases to explore articles published since 2013 that applied only physical activity interventions to study effect either on physical activity or physical literacy of children with DCD. Screening of available data revealed that there were only 05 studies which met the already defined inclusion criterion. Screening of articles also disclosed absence of interventional researches targeting physical literacy of children with DCD. Since DCD is a motor learning disorder more researches should be based on physical activity and target the same being the core area requiring amelioration. Moreover, a shift from physical activity to physical literacy is also needed as being more appropriate and broader concept for physical learning and growth of children with DCD.

    Keywords: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), Physical Activity (PA), Physical Literacy (PL)

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    Authors

    Naveed Shahzad & Hafiz Tahir Jameel

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Issues and Challenges in Online Education and Evaluation Process in Pakistan Driven by Covid-19

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  • Abstract

    Covid-19 came as a bad dream to all the structures of society whether economic, political or social. It threw doubts on the current condition of the systems of society. Education is one of the afflicted sector because the pandemic caused almost a year long closure of the  education system. Many advanced countries had already been incorporating online education in their system in some way but developing nations like Pakistan suffered the most since they were not prepared for this new system of education and evaluation at any phase in the pandemic. From students to teachers, everyone has came across many challenges in acquiring this new system of education. This paper aims at analysing those challenges of online education and changed evaluation system in Pakistan during the Covid-19 period and put forwarded some structured solutions on how to manage these changes for the future in the case that a new calamity arises.

    Keywords: Challenges, Online Education, Evaluation, Covid-19, Pakistan

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    Authors

    Muhammad Sajid Khan & Mehak

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Online Classes and Parents of Private School Students: An Exploration of Challenges

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  • Abstract

    The situation of COVID-19 and online classes made parents a bit panic. This paper aims to identify the challenges faced by the parents of students studying in private sector schools during online classes. The current research was an effort to explore the situation and challenges that parents faced during the pandemic regarding online classes. It is an exploratory qualitative research under the shade of interpretive paradigm. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol consisting of an open ended question and some probing questions. Parents of students (36 respondents) from Grade I-VIII were selected for the interviews. The study was delimited to only those parents whose children were receiving online classes for more than two months. Data collected from interviews were analyzed by using thematic analysis technique. The themes extracted from responses of parents are: stress level, financial and technical constraints, time management and rejection. The results show that the availability of the gadgets and online access were serious challenges for the parents. Parents were unable to contribute to online classes of their children smoothly due to other allied prerequisites. It is recommended that the awareness and readiness to meet such situations may be made available for masses. 

    Key words: COVID-19, online classes, ICT usage, private schools, online access, parents and challenges.

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    Authors

    Mamoona Riasat & Muhammad Shahid Farooq

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  • Abstract

    The running era is called digital age because of the large appearance of digital technology which seeks education enables students to be successful in their lives and workplace. Twenty first century skill frameworks are to be considered as a key driver for success, however, its implementation needs reforms and because of economic uncertainty most of the developing countries including Pakistan unable to do so. Therefore, this research project was initiated to reach a resized skill framework that is compatible with the digital age by determining the gap between theory and practice. The gap was explored by examining the difference between the acquired level of skills being imparted in teacher education programs and the required level of skills needed for success in the workplace. Data were collected through a survey of in-service teachers’ feedback with the help of a self-developed questionnaire. The average mean score of required skills was found high as compared to acquired, which indicates a gap between the skills being imparted on-campus learning (theory) and the need of the workplace (Practice). The gap may be bridged through the integration of digital-age century skills into the curriculum and instruction of teacher education programs resultantly teacher educators would be able to develop digital-age century skills into prospective teachers.

    Keywords: Teacher education, 21st century skills frameworks, theory and practice

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    Authors

    Muhammad Nadeem Anwar & Sung-Sang Yoo

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  • Abstract

    The developmental period of the African science curriculum has principally viewed Science Process Skills (SPS) as a major outcome. However, the scarcity of review regarding the African studies in SPS points to a crucial gap in the related literature. This warrants the need to review research articles on SPS thereby identifying common findings and distinguishable trends. Therefore, this review aimed to analyze and evaluate research studies conducted on science process skills in the context of African countries. The method carried out in this research was a systematic literature review. It involved analyzing and synthesizing studies that focused on science process skills in the African science education from 2002 to 2021. The researchers obtained 106 articles in the initial searching activity. Then, they screened out the abstract of these articles to determine their relevance. From this screening process, 34 SPS studies in different African countries published from 2002 to 2021 were synthesized and analyzed. The review of research trends on SPS-related issues conducted in African countries focused on the following points: contributor African countries, main SPS-related issues discovered by the studies, and the methodologies used by the researchers. Based on the result of this review, the top three SPS-related issues identified were; determining variables affecting SPS (23.52%), developing science curriculum via SPS (17.64%), and developing students’ and teachers’ SPS (17.64%). The results also revealed that most articles were contributed from Nigeria (44.11%) and the most frequently used research design and methods were quantitative research design (58.82%) by quasi-experiment, survey, and ex-post-facto methods. The most frequently used data collection tools were achievement tests (45.71%) and document analysis (31.42%), and the most frequently used samples were the students at high schools (65.71%). Since science curriculum plays a vital role in improving students’ SPS, the results of studies under investigation suggested that curriculum developers may increase the number of science activities when developing science curriculums. 

    Keywords: African continent, science education, science process skills, students, teachers

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    Authors

    Million Tadesse , Destaw Damtie & Yenus Nurie Bogale

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Pedagogy: A Comparative Study of Western and Islamic Stance Thereof

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  • Abstract

    This article primarily deals with the major characteristics and attributes of Western and Islamic pedagogical systems and the prominent differences thereof regarding the main five components of pedagogy i.e. pedagogical objectives, pedagogical principles, pedagogical management, pedagogical methods, pedagogical assessment. Islam being the last message of Allah Almighty towards humanity has its own particular system of pedagogy variously illustrated in the pages of the Glorious Quran and the Hadiths of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Owing to its peculiar and sui generis system, Islam occupies a distinguished place in the compendium of the educational systems of the world. In this way, it stands diametrically different from its counterpart in its objectives, principles and assessments etc. Similarly, both the pedagogical systems differ in pedagogic methods and management tools, too. Hence, this paper endeavoured to compare and contrast Islamic and Western pedagogical systems by keeping in view the above mentioned pentad differences in particular an; hence showing the cause of preferment of one pedagogical system to the other.

    Key Words: Allah Almighty, Pedagogy, Islamic, Western, Quran, Hadith.

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    Authors

    Ghulam Sarwar Butt , Muhammad Naveed Khalid & Farah Shafiq

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    ONLINE AND ACTIVE LEARNING DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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  • Abstract

    A mixed-method research was designed for gaining insight regarding how comparative study was addressed between online and active learning, during COVID-19 pandemic, in public universities of Lahore, Pakistan.  Identifying the issues faced by the students and teachers during this pandemic was the main purpose for designing this study. Convenient sampling technique was used by the researchers to select sample of the study: 210 participants in total, 200 students and 10 teachers from 4 public universities in Lahore. The data for this study was collected through standardized questionnaires and conducting (recorded) interviews. A significant difference was recorded between the online and active learning because of the problems that directly influenced students’ learning and teachers’ teaching.   

    Key words: Online Learning, Active Learning, Pandemic COVID-19.

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    Authors

    Namirah Aslam , Hina Akbar & Hafiza Gulnaz Fatima

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Exploring Secondary School Teachers' Work-Related Depression, Anxiety and Irritation

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  • Abstract

    Teachers’ workload and official responsibilities affect their classroom behavior along with their teaching performance. The major purport of the study wasto explore secondary school teachers’ work-related depression, anxiety,and irritation.The population of the study constituted of secondary school teachers from fourconveniently selected districts of Punjab. The researcher adopteda questionnaire to collect data about work-related depression, anxiety, and irritation faced by secondary school teachers. The results revealed that work-related depression, anxiety, and irritation regarding qualifications are not significantly different among respondents. It was concluded that respondents were not significantly different in their work-related depression and anxiety in four levels of teaching.

    Keywords: Teachers' work-related environment, Depression, Anxiety, Irritation

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    Authors

    Muhammad Tahir Khan Farooqi , Khalid Saleem Kiran Farzand & Abdul Shakoor

  • Volume : 9 Issue : Issue 1 Year: 2022 Publish Date: 2022-06-29

    Social Media is a Blessing or Curse: Impact of Social Media Usage on Students’ Education

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  • Abstract

    This study explores the "impact of social media usage on students' education. Students used social media to create content and buildup relationships with other community members for educational purposes. Information was gathered to determine whether or not social media is a blessing or a curse. A survey method was used to collect data. The population/universe was students whom they were using social media for different purposes like education. A stratified sampling technique was applied for data collection. These strata were based on male and female and Master and BS level programs; 160 students were selected in the sample. The results were that there was a significant association and (at the 0.01 level) positive relationship between academic performance and time spent while students were using social media for academic purposes. The study further explained a strong and positive association between the respondents' usage of social media platforms and their overall academic performance; the hypotheses regarding the amount of spending time using social media sites and the relationship between using social media and academic achievement demonstrated a significant and strong positive correlation between the two" factors.

    Keywords: Social media, Education, Survey, Students, University, Research Direction

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    Authors

    Faisal Aziz & Salman Amin

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  • Abstract

    The current study was designed to analyze the curriculum of the teaching of social studies in the context of Castro & Galace Model of Peace Education (2010) (CGMP) applying the suggested framework by Levander & Mikkola (2009) about core curriculum using concept mapping framework (CMF). The concept map instrument was developed based on all three aspects of peace education. According to the concept mapping framework, the text was noted and explained. Experts' peer reliability was established through curriculum analysis by experienced experts. The analysis reflects that concepts of peace education exist in the curriculum in the context of the Castro & Galace Model of Peace Education (2010) and Peace Education is also presented in the learning activities. The analysis exposed that 9 aspects out of 9 of peace knowledge represented while 11 aspects out of 12 regarding peace values and 7 out of 8 aspects have representation. The unit wise analysis exposed that 4 units out of 6 (67%) regarding peace knowledge while 4 units out of 6 (67%) regarding peace values and 5 units out of 6 (83%) have representation of peace skills. It is recommended that Higher Education Commission (HEC) should revise the curriculum, design a separate course for peace education, give equal weightage to all aspects of peace education and manage co-curricular activities for B.Ed. (Hons) elementary 4 years program.

     Keywords: Peace Education, Teacher Education, Concept Mapping Framework, Castro & Galace Model of Peace Education (2010) (CGMP)

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    Authors

    Bakht Jamal , Syed Asad Abbas Rizvi & Muhmmad Munir Kayani